Power relations: Their necessity as a constituent element of the crime of femicide in Ecuador

Introduction: This research focuses on determining the need and correctness of including the concept of "power relations" in the criminalization of the crime of femicide in Ecuador. Given that since its criminalization, and especially at present, the treatment of these cases has generated various questions. Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate whether "power relations" are necessary and adequate in the criminalization of femicide in Ecuador. It seeks to analyze the understanding and application of this concept in the legal framework, as well as to identify possible ambiguities that may arise in its interpretation.  Methodology: A qualitative approach was used to carry out this study. An exhaustive analysis of the related legal doctrine was carried out, comparative legislation perspectives were explored and an Ecuadorian judicial case of social commotion was examined. In addition, the opinion of experts in the field was obtained through interviews with a prosecutor and a judge. Results: It was determined that "power relations" are indeed important in the criminalization of femicide in Ecuador. However, it was found that this concept has not been sufficiently developed and its use has generated a certain ambiguity in the criminal definition, which complicates the actions of those involved in the prosecution and operators of justice in judicial proceedings. Conclusion: The lack of normative development of the concept of "power relations" in the definition of the crime of femicide in Ecuador has generated difficulties in its interpretation and practical application. Therefore, it is necessary for the legislature to conduct an exhaustive analysis of the criminal offense and proceed to a normative development that allows for a clear interpretation and a concise application of this concept in Ecuadorian criminal legislation.  

Johanna Elizabeth Méndez Bermejo, Ana Fabiola Zamora Vázquez


Chain of custody: Evaluation of evidence and effective judicial protection in adversarial criminal proceedings

Introduction: The present scientific article addresses about the problematic that the chain of custody has on the valuation of evidence and effective judicial protection in the criminal adversarial procedure, by means of a qualitative and varied methodology, where both the historical precedents of the subject and its current application are analyzed, based on a variety of methodologies such as: historical, logical, deductive, inductive, analytical, synthetic and dogmatic. Through the bibliographic review, the urgent need for a legislative intervention that safeguards the authenticity of the chain of custody and the valuation of evidence and effective judicial protection in the adversarial criminal procedure is evidenced. Objective: Therefore, the objective is to discover how the mismanagement of the chain of custody by the national police negatively affects the majority of criminal cases in the evaluation of the evidence by the Prosecutor's Office and even the jurisdictional body, which undermines the effective judicial protection that carries out the criminal prosecution, delegitimizing the integral judicial system in the application of the accusatory system.  Methodology: For the proper elaboration, a qualitative approach was chosen and the use of several methods such as: historical/logical, in order to analyze the background and development of the topic; deductive/inductive, to move from general to specific concepts; analytical/synthetic, to deal with the implications and current legal issues; and finally, the dogmatic method, which is arbitrary and arises from the regulations and, ultimately, provides theoretical support for this topic. The technique was the bibliographic review. Results: It was determined that the current regulation in Ecuador on the chain of custody, valuation of evidence and effective judicial protection in the adversarial criminal procedure is insufficient, which leads to protection of the chain of custody while ensuring legal certainty and without violating rights. Conclusion: In this context, it is demanding that the national assembly, in this case the Ecuadorian legislators, intervene to guarantee an adequate regulation of the chain of custody; evaluation of evidence and effective judicial protection in the adversarial criminal procedure, ensuring legal certainty and without violating rights.  

Jomaira Cecibel Merino Cueva, Gina Lucía Gómez de la Torre Jarrín


Canva as a teaching strategy in cultural and artistic education. A systematic review

Introduction: The integration of digital tools in education has become essential, particularly in the field of cultural and artistic education, where Canva, an online graphic design platform, plays a significant role. Objective: This study aims to systematize the existing literature on the use of Canva in cultural and artistic education to identify its benefits, challenges, and strategies for effective implementation. Methodology: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA methodology, where 15 articles were selected and analyzed after a thorough screening process. Results: The findings indicate that Canva enhances technical skills, critical thinking, creativity, and aesthetic appreciation in students, thanks to its intuitive interface and visual resources. However, challenges such as the need for teacher training and curricular adaptation were also highlighted. Conclusion: The study proposes a didactic strategy that incorporates Canva into cultural and artistic education through five structured sessions, promoting more interactive and creative learning. It underscores the importance of integrating digital tools like Canva to enhance education and learning in the current context. General Study Area: Education. Specific Study Area: Cultural and Artistic Education.

Luz Eulalia Rodríguez Mina, María Fernanda Garces Arce, Raidell Avello Martínez, Víctor Gustavo Gómez Rodríguez


Road maintenance model, with flexible pavement in the central zone of Ecuador

Introduction: This work is a general study of road maintenance with a flexible pavement structure to keep this type of roads in an efficient state, for which the following samples have been taken as reference, Montalvo-Totoras, Quero-Salasaca, Golden Apple-Quero roads, Patate-Píllaro, Patate-Baños, Pelileo-Patate, Cevallos-Mocha and Ambato-Tisaleo, which are patterns selected to guide the country's road maintenance, said sample are roads belonging to the inter-cantonal network of the central zone of the country, same that meets the best conditions for an analysis of flexible pavements. Objective:  General study of road maintenance with flexible pavement structure to keep the roads of the middle area of Ecuador in efficient condition. Methodology. In this work, compilation information processing was conducted on the current state of the flexible pavement visually through the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) Method, in which the type of failures and their severity were identified, deflections generated in the Beam. of Benkelman, which served as a basis for developing a general maintenance plan to be used. Results. Details were obtained by sampling units, PCI results and deflections per Benkelman beam for each of the locations, tracks, and apses to be studied in this report. Conclusions. A general proposal for road maintenance of the studied roads has been presented, where it was found that the inter-cantonal network needs periodic maintenance for the most part and rehabilitation in the most deteriorated areas. And routine maintenance on roads whose deterioration is slight.

Milton Rodrigo Aldás Sánchez, Rodrigo Iván Acosta Lozada, Alex Xavier Frías Torres, Byron Leonardo López Sánchez


CANVA digital resource to promote teaching creativity during the teaching-learning process

Introduction: This research work is based on the study of the CANVA digital resource to promote teaching creativity during the teaching-learning process. Objective: Determine the perception of the use of methodological strategies used by teachers, one in a traditional way and the other through the integration of the digital resource Canva as a teaching resource to enhance the creativity of teachers in planning the teaching-learning process. Methodology: A descriptive, documentary and field approach was used. Regarding the collection of information, surveys were used aimed at the institution's teachers, previously validated by experts. We worked with a non-probabilistic sample of 15 teachers whose selection criterion was that they be high school teachers. Results: 1. The theoretical foundation is conducted from the analysis of scientific articles with the analysis criteria. 2. A comparative analysis is conducted in relation to teaching-learning management through traditional strategies and using CANVA. 3. It contributes significantly to the theoretical-practical enrichment related to the use of CANVA in learning. Conclusion: The integration of Canva as a teaching resource is a strategy that allows promoting creativity and innovation in teaching, awakening motivation, attention, collaborative work and creativity in both teachers and students. General study area: education Specific study area: Different signature

Johanna Elizabeth Quilca Cualchi, Germania Adelaida Vaca Espín, Lorena del Carmen Bodero Arizaga, Xavier Oswaldo Yánez Cando


Educational management: importance of the playful strategy to evaluate the teaching-learning process of elementary general education students in the subject of mathematics

Introduction. In the educational field, innovations promote the development of cognitive processes, using strategies to combine experience and practice, as well as non-disciplinary methods that promote reflection, argumentation, and autonomy; In this context, learning mathematics benefits the acquisition of knowledge, understanding and interaction of conceptual content, oriented to logical reasoning and analytical procedures. Objective. Investigate the incidence of play for teaching Mathematics. Methodology. The participatory observation method was used through an observation sheet that allowed us to delve deeper into the study, subsequently facilitating the deduction of the consequences, verification, and verification of the hypothesis between two independent experts by applying the Mann-Whitney U Test. Results. The Ministry of Education, in coordination with regional and local institutions, encourages the participation of students, teachers, parents and the educational community with the objective of creating opportunities for the use of important knowledge based on critical pedagogy criteria and educating students. students, with a transformative perspective, educational management through play contributes to the evaluation of the teaching-learning process of the subject of Mathematics based on the integration of content from a constructivist and cognitivist perspective. Conclusion. In the educational system, the permanent changes in the field of science, the development of technology and the need to achieve a comprehensive education that promotes equality and equity require teachers to innovate in their practice using resources, strategies, materials, or activities to optimize the mathematics learning process; Therefore, the use of educational games benefits the improvement of reasoning skills, logical thinking, active participation, and collaborative learning.

Luis Fernando Imacaña Peñaloza, Jacqueline Alejandra Portero Aponte, Erika Alexandra Gallo Espín, Paulo Ricardo Yautibug Barrera


Starch, its use and effect as an edible coating in fruit preservation

Introduction: Post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables caused by microorganisms are high due to the lack of technological resources and the absence of protection systems, which causes the low competitiveness of this value chain. That is why several researchers have focused on the search for new techniques that are environment-friendly and prolong the useful life of products in the fruit and vegetable chain for longer. Objective: The main objectives of this work were to collect information on starch, its use and protective effect as an edible coating in the preservation of fruits, emphasizing the benefits that it generates and to find out the starch most used in the preparation. Methodology: It was theoretical-descriptive, much of the information that this document presents comes from various electronic sources such as: journals (SciELO, Dialnet, Innovative Food Science), technical reports, standards, theses, all chosen according to the selection criteria. Results: Based on the results evidenced in different studies, it is deduced that starch is an interesting alternative for the preservation of fruits, since it acts as a protective barrier avoiding weight loss, preserves the sensory characteristics for longer, and prolongs the shelf life of the fruits for a longer time. Conclusions:  Therefore, it is concluded that starch is considered a promising product, cassava starch being the most used to create coatings, as it is a universally available resource, easy to biodegrade and is friendly to the environment. Study Area: Education.

Armando Vinicio Paredes Peralta, Jhoanna Isabel Caiza Cuzco, Luis Fernando Arboleda Álvarez


Didactic proposal using the digital tool Nearpod for teaching graphemes

Introduction: Written communication is important so that human beings can understand and expand their knowledge; that is the importance of using graphemes correctly so that the message can be understood effectively. The incorporation of ICT in formal education is considered extremely relevant to enrich the learning developed in the so-called knowledge society. From the use of certain digital tools, such as Nearpod, digital educational proposals can be developed that allow the enrichment of students' learning. Objective: Improve the learning of certain graphemes by 8th year students at a public school in Ecuador through the design of a gamification proposal with the use of the digital tool Nearpod. Methodology: The research adopted a mixed perspective recovering contributions from qualitative and quantitative approaches. The research was conducted with two information collection techniques: observation and survey. Using the information obtained, an initial diagnosis was made to know the difficulties that the students presented in relation to the use of graphemes. An anecdotal record was also prepared, based on class observation, which allowed the diagnosis to be expanded. The analysis of the information collected (from 104 students and 5 teachers in the thematic area) allowed the design of the didactic proposal built using the Nearpod digital tool. Results: The results obtained in the research through the application of the gamification proposal show that 90% of the sample improved the use of graphemes. It was concluded that Nearpod is an excellent digital tool to develop didactic proposals, in the context of the research conducted, to develop proposals that tend to improve the use of the graphemes B, V, S, C, G, J and H. This digital tool allowed students to learn interactively with various gamification activities that helped consolidate knowledge. Conclusion: It is concluded that digital tools enrich the teaching and learning processes of certain contents, in this case, the graphemes of the Spanish language; They can be integrated into various proposals that are designed in the educational context aimed at promoting new higher-order cognitive skills. General study area: Language and Literature. Specific area of study: Graphemes B, V, S, C, G, J and H.

Martha Viviana León Puruncajas, Margarita Elizabeth Rocha Chasi, Carmen María Belén Godino , Virginia Sánchez Andrade


Integration of learning and knowledge technologies in the management of interdisciplinary projects in high school in the Unidad Educativa “Rumipamba”

Introduction: In the Ecuadorian context, the integration of learning and knowledge technologies (LKT) in interdisciplinary projects in high school is an opportunity to improve students' learning and their preparation for the future. Objective: The article addresses the need to maximize the positive impact of the integration of technologies in interdisciplinary projects in the Rumipamba Educational Unit. The objectives include analyzing the current state of technology integration, assessing challenges and limitations, and proposing concrete recommendations. Methodology: A mixed approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods was used, including a structured questionnaire implemented in the Google Form platform. Results: The findings reveal the current state of the integration of learning and knowledge technologies in interdisciplinary projects in high school in the Ecuadorian context, obtained through a structured questionnaire. Concrete recommendations are proposed to improve the implementation of technologies in interdisciplinary projects in the Ecuadorian educational context. Conclusion: The need for greater support and resources for teacher training in the effective use of learning and knowledge technologies in the Ecuadorian educational context is highlighted. General area of study: Ecuadorian Educational System. Specific area of study: "Rumipamba" Educational Unit.

Ana Lucia Bedón Tirado, Jorge Fernando Córdova Sotomayor, Luis Eduardo Dier Luque, Roger Martínez Isaac