Aplicación de la estrategia de andamiaje para mejorar las habilidades de la expresión oral en alumnos de décimo grado

Introduction: Ecuador is one of the countries in Latin America with the lowest level of English, for this reason, many researches have been conducted to face this problem. Objectives: The present study explored the impact of applying the Scaffolding strategy for developing English as a foreign language focusing on speaking skills. Methodology: A quasi-experimental research was used. The participants were tenth-grade students of the "Unidad Educativa Belisario Quevedo" in Pujilí-Ecuador. The sampling method was non-probabilistic and intentional. The instrument was obtained from the oral expression section of the Cambridge PET exam (Preliminary English Test A2) functioning as a pre-test and post-test. Subsequently, the Scaffolding Strategy was applied to one group where students had fourteen class sessions with a structured procedure designed according to the stages of the already mentioned strategy. At the end of the study, all participants were evaluated through of a post-test to measure the effectiveness of the strategy. Results: The findings were highly satisfactory due to students’ speaking levels where the strategy was applied, significantly increased. Eventually, aspects like Grammar and Vocabulary, Pronunciation, and Interactive Communication were strengthened through the stages of the Scaffolding strategy. Conclusions: The results of this study support the use of the Scaffolding strategy in oral skills allowing students to comprehend more information and incorporate innovative ideas into their prior knowledge. The general area of study: Education. Specific area of study: English language learning.

Iralda Mercedes Riera Tubón, Luis Antonio Paredes Rodríguez


Unconventional matrices such as faneras (hairs) in the detection of drugs of abuse for the purposes of forensic toxicological investigation

Introduction: At present, hair has been used as an unconventional matrix for the identification of substances of abuse, taking into account its advantages and disadvantages, as well as the application of adequate collection and conservation methods, knowing that these do not require high demands compared to samples such as urine, blood and other biological fluids. Objective: To identify the usefulness of non-conventional matrices such as faneras (hairs) in the detection of drugs of abuse for the purposes of forensic toxicology research. Methodology: The research is of bibliographic design, with a descriptive level of cross section and mixed character in which the review of written or digitized documents in the scientific literature about unconventional matrices such as faneras (hairs) in the detection of drugs of abuse. Results: A meticulous analysis was carried out, using the investigations of various authors about the use of faneras (hairs) in the detection of substances of abuse for the purposes of forensic toxicology research. Conclusion: the utility of the non-conventional matrix (hair) lies in the main characteristics that it presents: easy collection, conservation, storage, non-invasive procedure, allows to identify long periods of substance use, as well as the limitations that it has, in the field of quantification of very low concentrations of the substances of abuse found in this biological sample, confirmation methods with high costs are applied there. Area of study: Criminalistics / Forensics. Specific area of study: Law-Criminalistics.

Erika Gabriela Collaguazo Enriquez, María Eugenia Lucena de Ustáriz


Cholinesterase levels as a biomarker of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning in and forensic toxicology

Introduction: Poisoning by organophosphates and carbamates is considered a public health problem. The toxicity of these compounds results from the inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes, producing overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors located in the central and autonomic nervous system and the neuromuscular junction. Cholinesterase inhibitors cause 80% of pesticide poisonings in the world. The diagnosis of pesticide poisoning is made through the clinical history, physical examination supported by the determination of cholinesterase activity levels as the main biomarker of exposure to organophosphates and carbamates. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe and argue the importance of determining cholinesterase levels for the diagnosis of intoxication or poisoning by organophosphate and carbamate pesticides and its potential application in forensic toxicology. Methodology: This research work is documentary, retrospective and descriptive based on the systematic search of literature in online databases, according to the items proposed by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), which include the identification, selection, and inclusion of the consulted literature. Results: The search allowed the consultation of scientific articles obtained from eight online databases, published between 2015-2023. The studies analyzed demonstrate the proven practical utility of cholinesterase levels in the diagnosis, risk assessment, and monitoring for control or prevention of intoxication or poisoning by organophosphates and carbamates. Conclusion: The bibliographic material consulted made it possible to establish and corroborate the worldwide importance of cholinesterase levels as the main biomarker of exposure to organophosphates and carbamates, contributing to the diagnosis of intoxication or poisoning with this type of pesticide; as well as its potential utility in forensic toxicology.

Bolívar Fernando Rea Sánchez, Francisco Javier Ustáriz Fajardo


Interference agents in the detection of drugs of abuse through immunoassay tests used in clinical and forensic toxicology

Introduction: The detection of drugs of abuse is of interest in legal and forensic medicine for living subjects or corpses, in the workplace, in patients undergoing detoxification of psychoactive substances and in various legal procedures. The substances to be detected are those psychoactive substances most frequently consumed by the population or their metabolites. Immunoassays are the first line of detection used to determine drugs of abuse in biological samples. However, positive results obtained by immunoassay detection must be confirmed with a second analysis based on chemical or physical principles such as chromatographic techniques. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe and argue the importance of immunoassay tests in the detection of drugs of abuse for clinical and forensic toxicology and the different interfering factors that affect their reliability. Materials and methods: This research work is documentary, retrospective and descriptive based on the systematic search of literature in online databases, according to the items proposed by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), which include the identification, selection, and inclusion of the consulted literature. Results: The search allowed the consultation of scientific articles obtained from thirteen online databases, published between 2015-2023. The studies analyzed demonstrate the proven utility of immunoassay tests in the preliminary detection of drugs of abuse for clinical and forensic toxicology; as well as the analytical limitations derived from its specificity and selectivity in the face of interfering factors. Conclusion: The bibliographic material consulted allowed establishing the practical utility and corroborating the worldwide importance of immunoassay tests in the detection of drugs of abuse and, in turn, determining the main interferers that affect their analytical reliability for clinical and forensic toxicology.

Klever Mauricio Lara Orozco, Francisco Javier Ustáriz Fajardo


Game-based learning for the development of reading comprehension among teenagers

Introduction: Reading comprehension is a great deal among English learners because it is one of the bases for their language learning process. This research aims to use game-based learning for the development of reading comprehension among first-year senior high school students. Methodology:  The study used a quantitative descriptive methodology with quasi-experimental design where seventy-eight students participated to form the control group and the experimental one. Moreover, two English teachers participated for the classroom treatment. Students from the control group studied in the morning section and the experimental group attend classes in the afternoon. To collect data, two instruments were used; first, a survey with its corresponding questionnaire to look for information about students’ perceptions on their own reading comprehension levels. The second instrument was the A2 for school’s exam – reading part that contained thirty questions focused on reading for main idea, for specific information, vocabulary, and spelling. Results: Findings from the pre-test revealed that students have a very low level of literal reading comprehension. The intervention involved classes based on board games and contest game with elements like points, achievements, rankings, time, levels, challenges, and rewards that contribute to motivate the teaching-learning process. Post-test results revealed that students from the control group remained the same level; however, the experimental group considerably improved. Conclusion: Therefore, the proposed hypothesis was accepted, and the author concluded that game-based leaning is beneficial for students to develop their reading comprehension.

Glenda Elizabeth Ruiz Villacrés, Luis Antonio Paredes Rodríguez


Violation of the rights of the victim in terms of comprehensive reparation due to the application of the principle of opportunity

In the present research work, we seek to analyze how the principle of opportunity has been applied and, in turn, how it is affected in the integral reparation of the victim, established as a fundamental right of constitutional rank, since this is violated when the principle is applied. of opportunity in the criminal sphere under two circumstances in crimes for which a custodial sentence of up to five years and in those culpable offenses in which the person being investigated or prosecuted suffers serious physical damage that makes it impossible for them to lead a normal life, of which in the present study will be addressed in the traffic crimes raised in the Azogues canton, because with the information that has been collected in the pertinent public institutions it is presumed that, in the Principle of opportunity, the victim is not compensated with regard to comprehensive reparation; Well, when the prosecutor abstains or desists from the investigation that has been started, in the procedure provided for in Art. 413 of the COIP, the judge declares the extinction of the exercise of criminal action. While with respect to the victim, the rule says: "The extinction of the exercise of criminal action for the reasons provided in this article, does not harm, limit or exclude the right of the victim to pursue through civil proceedings the recognition and the reparation of the damages derived from the act.” (National Assembly. COIP, 2014) Which is utopian first because comprehensive reparation is a right of constitutional rank and that must be imposed in a sentence of conviction as provided in articles 619 numeral 4, 621, 622 numeral 6 and 628 of the COIP, is in harmony or related to articles 1-2 second subparagraph-11 numeral 2 and 6- 77,78,78.1,-405,413 fourth subparagraph, 432 numeral 1, 519 numeral 2 and 4- 555,604 numeral 4 literal a) and article 628 of the Comprehensive Organic Criminal Code and punctually in the numeral 3 that says. The obligation to make reparation to the victim will take precedence over the fine, confiscation and other obligations of the criminally responsible person. (National Assembly. COIP, 2014) Where legal certainty remains, since it is eloquent that there is a state of uncertainty for the victim, what is more, there is a re-victimization by forcing the taxpayer of the crime to be compensated with the payment of comprehensive reparation in civil proceedings, which It implies a whole procedure and its respective instances and financial resources to hire a lawyer to assume the technical defense, something inadmissible and unheard of that, in addition, the integral reparation not only consists of an amount of money, but is a set of connatural rights to those contemplated in Article 78 of the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador. It will be demonstrated how this right has been violated, for this methodologies will be used to establish general conclusions mainly in traffic crimes, which is what we will address as a priority issue, for this reason the proposal to prepare a document in which it is made a legal criticism regarding articles 412 and 413 of the Comprehensive Organic Criminal Code, of its shortcomings when this principle has been applied. For these reasons, this study will seek to develop a proposal to reach a legal solution to the legal problem that is generated.

Flor Gabriela Castillo Villavicencio, Jaime Alberto Pacheco Solano, Pablo Arturo Pozo Cabrera


Labor performance in hand excavations by means of linear regression. Case study: Cuenca city

Introduction:  Currently, a poor projection of labor performance in the construction sector, can cause: 1) a delay in the execution of projects, 2) increase the cost of execution and 3) cause discomfort due to breach of contracts. Objective:  To make a projection of labor performance in hand excavations in the city of Cuenca-Ecuador. Methodology:  This research is a "case study" because it will analyze and characterize a specific topic, in this case: the performance of labor in hand excavations in 6 works located in the city of Cuenca through the collection of data inherent to the proposed topic. Results:  Among the main results obtained, it was determined that the 13 indicators used showed correlation with performance, but at various levels of significance. A statistical formula based on linear regression was modeled to make a prediction with a confidence percentage of 91% and it was evidenced that: the indicators of: type of soil, employees' height and salary have the highest representations on the calculation of the final yield. Conclusion:  A confidence level of 96% can be obtained when predicting performance in hand digging activities. Although not all independent variables affect the calculated performance equally, soil type proved to be statistically significant (p≤0.001) individually.

Carlos Felipe Granda Tola, Sandra Lucia Cobos Mora, Pablo Tiberio Vásquez Quiroz


Incorporation of passive strategies in the design of a dwelling for tropical mega thermal semi-humid climate, located in Durán province of Guayas

Introduction: Currently we have a problem not only at the local level but also at the global level, in terms of climate change. Objective: The main objective of this article is passive planning in the project of a house for a Tropical Mega Thermal Semi Humid climate, located in Canton Durán, Province of Guayas so that it meets comfort parameters in the internal distribution of a house. Methodology: The present investigation employs the use of the following methodologies: descriptive and exploratory supported by documentary bases such as field study, since these allow the search for information based on a systematic review through keywords related to thermal comfort, passive air conditioning strategies, in the population where the inclusion criteria for the sample were: research articles, bibliographic data, magazines and digital bases published in the last five years. Results: Based on quantifications of the climate that predominates in the Duran Canton, the necessary parameters have been identified to have thermal comfort in a standard dwelling. According to the information collected, a strategy was determined to provide air currents and generate cooling inside the property. Conclusion: According to mathematical calculations and parameters established in tables, graphs, and diagrams with respect to the bioclimatic tools, it is established that for a housing project for the Duran Canton, in addition to the geometric shape, it is necessary to have a planning that allows thermal comfort at interior of a house. The well-being of the internal spaces and comfort of the property depends on good planning in the design and construction process, such as the implementation of large windows with windows for air flow, overhangs to prevent solar radiation, height with respect to the level of the soil and the incorporation of shrubs to regulate the incidence of radiation.

José Carlos Freire Navas, Carlos Eduardo Romo Zamudio, González Redrován Trajano Javier


Design strategies for solar control in school buildings in a humid climate - case study high school level in the city of Macas - Ecuador

Introduction. In several cases, in Ecuador, educational architecture is based on guidelines established several years ago, the same ones that are not in accordance with current trends or do not consider determining factors to achieve the thermal comfort of the user, it has been dismissed issues such as climate, culture and age-appropriate pedagogy. The same concept is repeated in public and private institutions around the country, optimizing construction time and reducing costs, causing sustainable design deficiencies such as orientation, use of thermal insulation or sunbathing devices, are a common factor. Objective. Propose passive architecture strategies in response to an unfavorable factor of sunlight and thermal sensation, strategies that can be applied in the design of new educational projects or in renovating existing ones. Methodology. Surveys have been carried out under the Fanger method to determine the thermal and sunny conditions in which the educational activity of the baccalaureate level is carried out in certain educational institutions in the city of Macas. Results. The physical and architectural conditions of some establishments do not contribute to achieving an environment that has a very important factor such as thermal comfort, a term that relates the properties of variables such as air quality, humidity conditions, sunshine, among others. The climatic conditions of the city of the case study are also established, such as temperature, incidence of wind and sun, regularity, indices, and incidence of rain, among other factors. Conclusion. It is necessary to determine passive strategies for solar control in high school educational establishments in the City of Macas, the same ones that can be applied in other areas of the same geographical region of the country that have the same climatic conditions.

Fabián Patricio Lalvay Mejía, Carlos Eduardo Romo Zamudio