Internal control management for SMEs from a corporate governance perspective and impact on financial results, agricultural sector

Introduction. The agricultural sector is the third largest in Ecuador. In Cotopaxi, of seventy-one agricultural companies, 9.85% are large and 60.57% are SMEs. The agricultural sector in the SMEs has presented a deficient administrative organization, specifically in the management of internal control. Objective. To analyze the management of internal control as a pillar of corporate governance and its impact on the financial results of medium and large companies in the agricultural sector of Cotopaxi. Methodology. The study is a quantitative, correlational, cross-sectional study applied to the executive level of twenty-two companies. The evaluation of corporate governance was conducted considering the methodology of good practices of the Dubai code. Results. The results indicate a positive and significant correlation between the control environment and the ROE and ROA indicators. Conclusions. Internal control management has an impact on financial results, so that the evidence of this study can be generalized to SMEs. In this context, the contribution of the research is a model of internal control management based on corporate governance, which influences better performance by providing value, soundness, and efficiency for SMEs in the agricultural sector.

Génesis Monserrat Chávez Zapata, Esteban Danilo Reinoso Pérez , Myriam Alexandra Urbina Poveda


Internal control management for SMEs from the perspective of corporate governance and impact on financial results, industrial sector

Introduction. Internal control management is a set of procedures that help organizations to safeguard their resources. Objective. In this context, through a study of 20 companies (medium and large) of the industrial sector in the province of Cotopaxi, it is evaluated how the internal control management from the application of corporate governance affects the financial results, it should be noted that the problems that arise in this sector is the lack of adequate organization and lack of supervision in the production plant, considering that in this province 7.87% corresponds to large companies and 92.13% to medium and small. Methodology. Corporate governance was measured through the construction of indexes such as shareholder rights, general meeting, board of directors, government and/or family, control architecture, information transparency and risk mitigation measures. Results. Through a multivariate regression model, the results highlight that control architecture has a positive relationship with financial results. Conclusion. Considering the importance of internal control, the implementation of an internal control management model has been proposed to contribute to the financial performance of SMEs in the industrial sector.

Jessica Marlene Toaquiza Licta, Lady Marisol Lema De la Cruz, Myriam Alexandra Urbina Poveda


Internal control management for SMEs from the perspective of corporate governance and impact on financial results, commercial sector

Introduction. The problems that concern commercial SMEs are internal operations, organization, business model, internal control, and employee incentives. Objective. To analyze the management of internal control based on the application of corporate governance and its impact on the financial results of companies in the commercial sector of Cotopaxi. Methodology. The empirical analysis was conducted in a sample of eighteen companies, where the corporate governance measures were analyzed under the methodology of the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the measures of financial results were approximated by the return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). The Granger causality approach was employed to determine the correlation of variables and finally, the deductive method was used to draw a conclusion about the internal control management model. Results. A significant one-way causality relationship was found between the internal control and ownership sub-indicators with the financial performance measures Conclusion. The importance of establishing an internal control management model as a mechanism to influence better performance of commercial SMEs is highlighted.

Evelyn Maryuxi Haro Haro, Maria José Rodríguez Alegría, Myriam Alexandra Urbina Poveda


Superconductivity and magnetism. Basic Smattering and applications

Introduction. The accelerated development achieved in society has given rise to the incessant search for feasible resources to avoid environmental pollution, it turns out that the materials superconductors may be precise in the cause. Losing resistance can be many more effective and efficient, also allowing new branches of knowledge to expand. Objective: The objective of this research is to make a compilation of the most important aspects general principles of superconductivity, a physical phenomenon that becomes increasingly relevant to you in the search for ecological development. In addition, to lay the foundations for future research that can reveal the aspects that are not yet known in superconductivity. Methodology: To conduct the compendium of superconductivity, the most general aspects of the subject and for this the bibliography related to the subject was consulted, consulting specialists in different subjects whose information was the basis to enrich this work. Result s: When a volumetric sample loses resistance to a certain temperature critical (Tc) and in that same temperature the Meissner- Ochsenfeld effect is appreciated, we recognize it (only then) as a superconductor. Superconducting materials possess a gain variability in their applications due to their own characteristics. Conclusions: It is characteristic of each superconductor the loss the total loss of resistance at a certain temperature review. The Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect consists in that a sample expels a magnetic flow and, as a result, it floats on a magnet, going into the superconducting state. There are two types of superconductors: Type I superconductors that are not the pure metals or elements that have a complete flow exclusion (Meissner effect) and have temperature values critical (Tc) close to absolute zero, as well as low values of critical magnetic field (Ho and critical current density (Jc): and type II superconductors are alloys or transition metals. The bases of superconductivity are laid in the Bardeen, Coopery, Schrieffer theory (BCS Theory).

Isbel Garcés Ramírez, Tomás Espinoza Achong, Thalía Pérez Ramos , Efraín Velasteguí López


Clil methodological principles integration into the teaching of content subjects in English

Introduction. With the increasing importance of bilingual education, the teaching of content subjects in English has gained considerable significance worldwide. This has brought challenges for teachers in charge of teaching these subjects due to distinct factors which have influenced the integration of CLIL principles in the teaching of content subjects. Objective. In this regard, this study aims to analyze the presence of CLIL methodological principles in existing content subject classrooms. Methodology. For this purpose, this research project was based on a qualitative design. Data was collected through interviews via zoom with seven English teachers from a private school in Ecuador purposefully selected, because they have taught content subjects in English. For the analysis of the data, the interview transcripts were used, and a thematic analysis using codes was conducted. All the datasets were organized using the software; Taguette. Results. The outcomes of the study revealed that CLIL methodological principles are not noticeably integrated currently due to several factors such as the lack of teacher training, low awareness of the CLIL approach, and matters of time and resources. Conclusions. Addressing these challenges will help teachers broaden their knowledge and enhance their teaching practice. Hence, there is room for improvement in the process of implementing the teaching of content subjects in English.

Paola Belén Torres Lazo, Michael John McCandless